St. John Bosco and His Guardian Angel Dog
Was it an angel or was it a dog? The life of Don Bosco furnishes us with a remarkable and interesting story of what appears to many an angelic intervention in saving the life of this servant of God from the fierce attacks of the Waldensian heretics, who made several attempts to assassinate him.
These heretics were furious at the good done by Don Bosco and sought by violent means to rid themselves of his influence. Some of their adherents were men of the lowest and most vicious type, and these they hired to carry out their nefarious designs.
When returning home one night through a bad and dangerous part of the town, he saw a magnificent dog of huge size following him. At first he was frightened but quickly came to see that the dog was friendly. The animal walked by his side and accompanied him to the door of his house and then went away. This happened five, six or eight times. He called the dog Grigio.
What did it mean? He was soon to learn.
Hastening home by himself, some time after the first appearance of the dog, two shots were fired at him by an assassin from behind a tree. Both shots missed their mark, but his assailant then rushed at and grappled with him. At that moment, Grigio appeared and sank his teeth into the flesh of the would-be murderer, who fled away shrieking with pain.
On a second occasion, two men lay in wait for him and threw a sack over his head. This time it seemed all was over with him, but Grigio unexpectedly came to his rescue and jumped at one of the ruffians, seizing him by the throat. The other fled in terror. Don Bosco had then to liberate the first from the fangs of Grigio, who still held him by the throat.
A third time, no less than twelve hired assassins, armed with clubs, lay in ambush, into which Don Bosco walked unawares. Again, escape seemed impossible, but once more Grigio bounded into the midst of the group, and his fierce look and savage growl proved enough. The men made off as quickly as they could.
Sometimes the dog entered Don Bosco’s house, but always with some reason, either to accompany him on a night journey or to prevent his leaving the house. No amount of animal instinct could explain these unexpected appearances of the dog.
On one of these occasions, when Don Bosco tried to go out, the great dog lay across the door and growled in such a menacing way that St. John was forced to remain at home. And it was well that he did so, for shortly afterwards a gentleman arrived to warn him not to leave the house on any consideration, as the heretics lay in wait to kill him.
As long as the persecution lasted, Grigio never failed to be at his post and when the danger passed he was seen no more. Whence he came or whither he went no one knew.
Ten years later, Don Bosco had to go to the farmhouse of some friends and had been advised that the road was dangerous.
“If only I had Grigio,” he said. At once the great dog appeared by his side, as if he had heard the words, giving signs of the greatest joy. Both man and dog arrived safely at the farmhouse and went into the dining room, where the family invited Don Bosco to take part in the evening meal.
The dog lay down. No one thought any more of him. When the repast was finished the master of the house proposed to feed the dog. But he was gone! Doors and windows had been closed; how did he go?
In 1883, that was more than thirty years after the dog’s first appearance, he appeared once more in a different locality to guide Don Bosco, who had lost his way.
How are we to explain those wonderful appearances of the dog, at the most opportune moments and in different localities? Surely we may believe that this was angelic intervention.Especially is this so because the great dog was never known to eat.
Saint Gemma Galgani and Her Guardian Angel (Taken from Fr. Germanus C.P. Her spiritual director)
Born in 1878 in Lucca, Italy, she was outstanding for her angelic purity, child-like simplicity, candor, and innocence, virtues that no doubt help account for the special privilege she received. Gemma’s confessor and biographer provides us with details of her familiarity with her guardian angel.
“Gemma,” he writes, “saw him with her eyes, touched him with her hand as if he were a being of this world, remained talking with him as one friend with another. ‘Jesus has not left me alone,’ she said. ‘He makes my guardian angel stay with me always….’
“‘If I am sometimes culpable, dear Angel, don’t be angry with me. I want to be grateful to thee,’ she said to him.
“And the angel answered: ‘Yes, I shall be thy guide and inseparable companion. Dost thou not know who it is that gave me charge of thee? It is the merciful Jesus.’
“Unable to restrain her emotion at this, the angelic girl stood rapt in ecstasy with her angel. The angel sometimes let her see him raised in the air with outspread wings, his hands extended over her or joined in an attitude of prayer. At other times, he knelt beside her.
“I myself,” continues her confessor, “have often attended Gemma’s meditations with her angel.… I noted that every time she raised her eyes to look at the angel, listen to him, or speak to him, even aside from the time of meditation and prayer, she lost the use of her senses. At those moments one could prick, burn, or shake her without her feeling it.
“Her angel guardian was to Gemma a second Jesus, so to speak. She made known to him her own wants and those of others. In her sufferings she wanted him always by her side. She entrusted him to lay several matters before the throne of God, before the Divine Mother and her patron saints, giving him closed and sealed letters to them with a request to bring her the answers promptly. Those letters, as a matter of fact, disappeared.”
She also kept the angel busy with many letters to people in this world, often to her confessor.
“It was thus,” he writes, “that she kept the heavenly messenger continually on the move, and he most gladly favored her. Even without being called, he hastened to her in every need and danger. He restrained the power and malicious ruses of the devil, who was always just as vigilant in his efforts to do her harm. Instances are not wanting of this blessed guardian’s constant watchfulness. Once when Gemma was at table with her family, one of those present did not hesitate to blaspheme the Holy Name of God. Upon hearing this, she fainted in horror and, falling, would have dashed her head against the floor had her angel not hastened to her aid. He took her hand, supported her, and with a single word restored her.
“The most important mission of Gemma’s angel was in what concerned her spiritual advancement. While he served on one side as her watchful protector, on the other she found in him a perfect master of Christian perfection.
“The holy guardian knew how to show severity when necessary. One day she told me of this in the following words: ‘My angel is a bit severe, but I am glad for it. During the past few days he called me to order as many as three or four times a day.’
“Seeing the great charity lavished on her, Gemma loved her angel immensely, and his name was always on her lips as well as in her heart. ‘Dear Angel,’ she would say, ‘I so love you!’
“‘And why?’ he would ask.
“‘Because you teach me to be good, to remain humble, and to please Jesus.’
“Another time, Gemma wrote: ‘I was in bed, suffering greatly, when I suddenly became absorbed in prayer. I folded my hands and, moved with heartfelt sorrow for my countless sins, I made an act of deep contrition. My mind was wholly plunged in this abyss of crime against my God when I beheld my angel standing by my bed. I felt ashamed of being in his presence, but he was more than courteous with me, and said kindly: “Jesus loves thee greatly; love Him greatly in return.” Then he added: “Art thou fond of Jesus’ Mother? Salute her very often, for she values such attention very much and unfailingly returns the greetings offered her; and if thou dost not feel that she does, know that thus she makes a proof of thine unfailing trust.” He blessed me and disappeared.’”
May Saint Gemma’s intimacy with her angel, so simple, spontaneous, and full of profound humility, be an example for us all.
In the spring of 1916 Lucia, Francisco and Jacinta, had their first encounter with a heavenly messenger. Writing in her memoirs, composed under obedience to the Bishop, Lucia tells of that first meeting.We went on that occasion to my parents’ property, which is at the bottom of the Cabeco, facing east. It is called Chousa Velha.
About the middle of the morning it began to drizzle and we climbed up the hill, followed by our sheep, in search of a rock that would shelter us. And so it was that we entered for the first time into that blessed place. It is in the middle of an olive grove that belongs to my godfather, Anastacio. From there one can see the village where I was born, my father’s house, and also Casa Velha and Eira da Pedra. The olive grove, which really belongs to several people, extends as far as these places.
We spent the day there, in spite of the fact that the rain had stopped and the sun was shining in a clear sky. We ate our lunch and began to say the Rosary. After that we began to play a game with pebbles. We had only been at it a few moments when a strong wind began to shake the trees and we looked up to see what was happening, since it was such a calm day. And then we began to see, in the distance, above the trees that stretched to the east, a light whiter than snow in the form of a young man, quite transparent, and as brilliant as crystal in the rays of the sun. As he came near we were able to see his features. We were astonished and absorbed and we said nothing to one another. And then he said:
Do not be afraid. I am the angel of peace. Pray with me.
He knelt, bending his forehead to the ground. With a supernatural impulse we did the same, repeating the words we heard him say:
My God, I believe, I adore, I hope, and I love You. I ask pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not hope, and do not love You.
Pray in this way. The hearts of Jesus and Mary are ready to listen to you.
And he disappeared. He left us in an atmosphere of the supernatural that was so intense we were for a long time unaware of our own existence. The presence of God was so powerful and intimate that even among ourselves we could not speak. On the next day, too, this same atmosphere held us bound, and it lessened and disappeared only gradually. None of us thought of talking about this apparition or any pledge of secrecy. We were locked in silence without having willed it.
The intense effect that the apparition of the Angel had on the children, quite different from the more serene experience of the Virgin the following year. Lucia states,
I don’t know why, but the apparitions of our Lady produced in us effects quite different from the angel’s visitations We felt in both instances the same intimate happiness, peace and joy, but instead of the physical prostration the angel imposed, our Lady brought a feeling of expansion and freedom; and instead of this annihilation in the divine presence, we wished only to exult in our joy. There was no difficulty of speech when our Lady appeared; there was rather on my part a desire to communicate.
This difference can perhaps be explained in this way. The angels of whatever choir share in common with God a spiritual nature, unmixed with matter. The goodness of their being, filled with the divine justice according to the degree of glory granted to each, radiates that holiness unmediated, though proportioned to the capacity of human beings to experience it. Not without reason Scripture shows how easily an angel appearing to men can be confused with God Himself (Rev 19:10, 22:9). When our Lady appears, however, although her glory is greater than that of the highest seraphim her human nature cloaks that glory in the familiar, just as did Our Lord’s human nature, even after the Resurrection.
Although the angels, too, can appear in more mundane fashion, it must have suited the divine purposes to reveal to the children something of the holiness of God. Lucia tells us of the lingering effect it had on them.
His words sank so deeply into our minds that we never forgot them, and ever after we used to spend long periods on our knees repeating them, sometimes until we fell down exhausted.
Sometime during the summer of 1916 the three cousins were playing in the heat of the day in the garden near the well behind the Santos home in Aljustrel. Lucia describes how the angel appeared to them once more, chastising them for their for their lack of spiritual seriousness.
Suddenly we saw the same angel near us.
What are you doing? You must pray! Pray! The hearts of Jesus and Mary have merciful designs for you. You must offer your prayers and sacrifices to God, the Most High.
In every way you can offer sacrifice to God in reparation for the sins by which He is offended, and in supplication for sinners. In this way you will bring peace to our country, for I am its guardian angel, the Angel of Portugal. Above all, bear and accept with patience the sufferings God will send you.
This apparition renewed the same profound effect which the first one had on them. Francisco, who throughout the appearances of the angel and Our Lady would see but not hear, was unsuccessful in prying from the girls the words which the angel had spoken until the following day. Lucia tells us,
The Angels’ words sank deeply into our souls like a gleaming torch, showing us Who God is, what is His love for us, and how he wants us to love Him too; the value of sacrifice and how it pleases Him; how He receives it for the conversion of sinners. That is why from that moment we began to offer Him whatever mortified us.
Lucia is uncertain when the third apparition of the angel occurred, sometime in late September or in October 1916 is her recollection. Having gone to the Cabeco with their flocks, and being more attentive to the words of the angel, they immediately knelt down to pray the prayer taught them by the angel: My God, I believe, I adore etc…
After we had repeated this prayer I don’t know how many time we saw the shining over us a strange light. We lifted our heads to see what was happening. the Angel was holding in his left hand a chalice and over it, in the air, was a host from which drops of blood fell into the chalice. The Angel leaves the chalice in the air, kneels near us and tells us to repeat three times:
Most Holy Trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore You profoundly, and I offer You the Most Precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ, present in all the tabernacles of the world, in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifferences by which He is offended. And by the infinite merits of His most Sacred Heart and the Immaculate Heart of Mary, I beg the conversion of poor sinners.
After that he rose, took again in his hand the chalice and the host. The host he gave to me and the contents of the chalice he gave to Jacinta and Francisco, saying at the same time,
Eat and drink the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ terribly outraged by the ingratitude of men. Offer reparation for their sakes and console God.
Once more he bowed to the ground repeating with us the same prayer thrice:
Oh, Blessed Trinity etc.
and disappeared. Overwhelmed by the supernatural atmosphere that involved us, we imitated the Angel in everything, kneeling prostrate as he did and repeating the prayers he said.
It was in this way that catechized in prayer, reparative suffering, and the doctrine of the Holy Eucharist, and strengthened by the Bread of Angels, that the children of Fátima were prepared for the visitation of the Queen of Portugal, the Immaculate Virgin Mary.
By: Melanie King
One night after coming home from a long trip, something happened that made me upset with Dave my husband. We are a couple that never really argued over anything, but this time we did and did not talk to each other for hours.
It was getting late and as usual before we go to bed, we always pray the rosary together! But now with the thought of being there next to him and not talking to each other then praying together made me feel so uneasy! But we had to because praying the rosary every night has been our devotion no matter what the situation is, where we are or how tired we get.
So when we were ready to pray, I thought maybe I should say what was going through my mind to calm me down before we start praying, and so the typical woman I am, I blurted out saying that next time when I am upset again to please avoid contradicting me. I expected him to say something, but to my dismay he just ignored me and started praying. I guess that made me more upset! So I ran out of our room, went to another, and in that room I sat down on the futon, contemplated in the dark and prayed the rosary alone. But it seemed that the devil found a way to take over! I tried to focus on every bead of the rosary but could not concentrate. I felt the devil interrupting and I kept trying harder to pray. Finally I managed to finish praying the rosary. Afterwards, I laid down, still contemplating on what had happened. I wanted to go back to our room but pride and rage kept me, and I did not know what to do next. So I prayed again, this time more meditatively. I asked GOD to show me what to do to be appeased because I was so troubled and feeling terribly strange! Then I remembered St. Michael the Archangel, knowing that he is the leader of the angel forces of heaven against the powers of hell, I called on him and talked to him like I was talking to a friend. And while tears were falling on my cheeks, I begged him desperately to help me.
After a few minutes of meditative talking, I saw a silhouette of someone standing there in the dark. I got up hurriedly to catch a glimpse of what I was seeing! Oh my GOD! I was so stunned, but I wasn’t scared! I looked and stared and to my amazement, there it was, a silhouette of a warrior with wings and a sword! Without doubt, I knew it was St. Michael the Archangel! My heart was pounding hard but I felt enlightenment! And then, in my mind, I heard St Michael talking, telling me to go back to my room quietly, to lay down next to my husband and go to sleep in peace. After a minute or so, I did what St. Michael said.
When I was already in bed, I felt so comforted and appeased. David was sleeping soundly, and in my mind I thought, “This man loves me and cares for me so much,” and then I was asleep.
When I got up in the morning, there he was! My husband with his open arms waiting for me, ready to kiss and hug me tight! After that I realized it was really St. Michael who appeared to me! Then I smiled and in my heart I said, “Thank you, St. Michael, thank you very much!” (I have a picture of St. Michael similar to the silhouette of what I saw).
Now my faith tells me that I need not have to worry anymore, that life is peaceful no matter what because GOD is always in our hearts, and that we have angels, especially St. Michael, who are always watching attentively over all of us! Thank you GOD! Hopefully with this testimony, you may be guided to call on St. Michael anytime you wish!
Please keep with you this powerful prayer. It helps!
St. Michael the Archangel, defend us in battle. Be our defense against the wickedness and snares of the devil. May GOD rebuke him, we humbly pray, and may you, Oh Prince of the Heavenly Hosts, by the power of GOD, thrust into hell Satan and all the evil spirits who prowl about the world seeking the ruin of souls. O glorious Prince St. Michael, chief and commander of the Heavenly Hosts, guardian of souls, vanquisher of rebel spirits, servant in the house of the Divine King and our admirable Conductor, you who shine with excellence and superhuman virtue, deliver us from all evil, all who turn to you with confidence, and enable us by your gracious protection to serve GOD more and more faithfully every day. Amen.
Thank you for reading my story and GOD be with all of us always! … Melanie King
The plague in Tlaxcala, Mexico, 1631: St Michael appears during the the April 25th “Greater Litanies” Procession
More than a millennium after ending the plague in Rome, and exactly 100 years after Our Lady’s apparitions to Blessed Juan Diego on Tepeyac Hill (Our Lady of Guadalupe, 1531) we come to the year 1631 with another Mexican apparition, which like the Romans finds the native people of Nativitas, Tlaxcala, Mexico also ravaged by a merciless plague. The illness, called “cocolixtli” by the locals, was a horrible form of smallpox that was devastating the people with immense sufferings and numerous deaths. As had been done on April 25th throughout the Catholic world since the time of Pope St Gregory, the people of Tlaxcala took part in the procession of the Greater Litanies, praying for an end to the plague that was mercilessly afflicting them. It was once again at time of great suffering that God chose to send Saint Michael to mitigate the plague.
On this occasion, instead of appearing to a saintly Pope, this time the great Archangel was sent by God to manifest himself to a lowly native Indian named Diego Lázaro de San Francisco (sometimes called Diego de San Lazaro), who was only seventeen years old at the time. Towards the conclusion of the Greater Litanies procession, Diego Lázaro suddenly saw Saint Michael in a vision, and the great Archangel spoke to him in his own native language (Náhuatl) stating:
“You are to know that I am Saint Michael the Archangel, and I have come to tell you that it is the will of God and mine that you tell the inhabitants of this place, and everywhere abroad, that near a valley between two mountain ridges you will find a miraculous spring of water that will cure the people of their ills. You will find it beneath a great boulder. Do not doubt what I have told you and do not neglect what I have sent you to do.”
As soon as St. Michael disappeared, Diego Lázaro was initially filled with holy joy. Astounded by the heavenly vision, he immediately asked others in the procession if they too had seen Saint Michael. The puzzled looks and replies of those around him made it clear he was the only one who had seen the Prince of the heavenly host. Confused, Diego Lázaro thought perhaps he imagined the whole encounter, and he decided not to tell anyone about his experience.
St Michael issues a grave warning
After a few days, the great archangel appeared to Diego Lázaro once again, and this time he was very displeased. He thundered:
“Why did you doubt what I have told you? Because you have not done as I requested, you too will be stricken with the plague that is devastating your people.”
Immediately Diego became severely ill with the “cocolixtli”. He remained in this grave state for about a week, until the Archangel’s next appearance. During this time thinking that his life was coming to an end, his family called for a priest, and he received the Sacrament of the sick.
St Michael makes another appearance to Diego Lázaro, leading him to the miraculous spring, and cures him
Just when those around Diego were convinced that he was passing from this life, St Michael intervened once again. This time, everyone present saw a dazzling light, which scared them tremendously, causing them all to flee from the hut. Describing afterwards what had happened, Diego states that St Michael took him by the hand:
“Saint Michael transported me to the place he had told me about before. With Saint Michael going before me through the night, everything was illuminated as the great prince passed, as if it were midday. Rocks and branches split apart as he passed, clearing a path for us. As we reached a certain spot, I saw Saint Michael holding a golden staff topped with a cross.
‘From the place I touch with this staff you will see flowing the miraculous spring I told you about during the procession. Make it clear to everyone that the illness you have suffered is a fruit of your disobedience.’
“Having said this, a great whirlwind of deafening screams, wailing and moaning, as if a great crowd were being driven from the place. I shook with fear. It seemed to me that the entire mountain ridge would tumble down on top of me during the turmoil.
‘Do not fear; these are the sounds made by the demons, thine enemies, because they know the great benefits that through my intercession the faithful will receive in this place from Our Lord. Many, seeing the marvels worked here, will convert and do penance for their sins, and all will give thanks to God for His mercies. Those who approach this spring with lively faith and sorrow for their faults will, with the water from this spring, obtain relief in their sufferings and needs, and those at the point of death will find a comfort in these waters.’
‘This light that you have seen descend from heaven is the virtue that God in His Divine Providence gives in this spring for the health and relief of the sick and needy. Make this known at once to everyone. That they may believe your testimony, I promise to work a great prodigy through you.’
With that, Saint Michael disappeared, and I found myself here in this hut once again, completely cured.”
Doubts and miracles- News spreads and a great boulder is miraculously moved
Diego’s family and friends were of course astounded by not only the great flash of light that drove them in fear out of the hut, his story afterwards, and most of all his sudden cure which completely amazed them. Keeping in mind St Michael’s command to spread the devotion, Diego went at once to the local superior of the Franciscans, Friar Hernando García Rendón, Guardian of the convent of Natívitas. Seeing the obvious sincerity and firm resolve of the 17 year old, the priest listened attentively as Diego Lázaro recounted the story, yet he was unsure what to make of it. He decided to send Diego to the Governor of Tlaxcala, Don Gregório de Nazienzen, who was known for his learning.
Diego recounted to the governor the entire story of Saint Michael’s appearance to him. Sadly, Don Gregório concluded that the tale was false and he commanded Diego to return home at once, warning that he did not want to hear any more about apparitions, and threatening to punish him if he did. Diego returned home as he was told, deeply disappointed but undaunted in his mission to spread word of the miraculous spring water.
Diego then met with his family and a few friends and he led them to the place where Saint Michael had revealed the spring. As they approached, they saw a great boulder blocking the spot. Together the men tried to move the boulder, but it would not budge. It was at this moment that Diego remembered Saint Michael’s words: “I promise to work a great prodigy through you.”
Asking everyone to stand back, he said a prayer for Saint Michael’s assistance. He then walked up and moved aside the massive boulder. The spring that was beneath gushed forth with crystalline water. Seeing him move the boulder and then the water coming forth, no one there doubted the truth of Diego’s words, and word quickly began to spread throughout the countryside of the miraculous spring.
Soon afterwards, a young girl stricken with the dreaded smallpox saw a vision of Saint Michael in a dream, instructing her to drink some of the miraculous water. A relative brought her the water, and she was restored to health. Hearing this, Diego asked her to give testimony to the governor, however she refused fearing harsh treatment from the skeptical leader. In a neighboring village, another miracle followed soon after, this time a young lady cured of the same dreaded disease by the miraculous water. Again, Diego failed to convince this woman also to speak to the governor.
Months went by and Diego felt understandably discouraged in his efforts to convince the governor. On November 13, St Michael once more appeared to him and said,
“Why do you act cowardly, and are negligent in what two times now I have commanded you? Do you want to be punished once again for your disobedience? Arise, and have diligence in making known what I have commanded to you.”
Cures abound through “San Miguel del Milagro”
Diego at once went to the spring, and filled a jug with water. This time bypassing the hostile governor, he went to the Bishop of Puebla, Don Gutierre Bernardo Quiroz. The kind Bishop listened attentively to the remarkable story of the apparition and its aftermath up to this point. Calling to mind how the Heavenly Father often had revealed the mysteries of his kingdom to simple people, he came to the conclusion that the young Indian man before him was sincere. He promised that he would make an investigation, ordering that the holy water be distributed among the sick in the area. All those who drank it afterwards greatly improved or completely recovered their health. The news of these cures were immediately reported to the Bishop, and were spread amongst the people in Puebla, Tlaxcala and other regions, and people began to arrive at “St Michael’s well” from many places.
“This light that you have seen descend from heaven is the virtue that God in His Divine Providence gives in this spring for the health and relief of the sick and needy.” -St Michael to the visionary Diego de San Lazaro
-St Michael the Archangel, pray for us!
A story from a mother illustrating the importance of devotion to our guardian angels and the miracle involving guardian angels that occurred in her own family.
I grew up praying to my Guardian Angel every night and I never “outgrew” this important practice. For my own family, I faithfully beseech my children’s and my husband’s Guardian Angels every day by praying the Guardian Angel prayer one time for each of them, “Angel of God, [family member’s name] guardian dear…”, inserting the family member’s name where it fits. A recent family experience confirmed for me the importance of this practice.
My son celebrated a major college milestone by going skydiving for the first time with some friends. Despite the company having 20 years of safely helping people experience this sport, my motherly concerns were in high gear. We spoke to him while on the way to Mass – and just before he boarded the plane – and everyone prayed to his Guardian Angel at Mass for his safety. Independently of this, his brother was also praying at Mass almost 300 miles from our location. The priest gave an excellent homily about us not having any idea when God will call us home…and yes, our son called us after Mass and began with, “Mom, I’m calling before you see this on the news.”
All of his friends made their jump, with my son being the last one to leave the plane (in fact, he was the last jump of the day). He came safely to earth and then turned to see the plane suddenly point straight downward and nose dive straight into the earth. The young pilot tragically died on impact and we grieve for him and his family. An investigation determined that the engine failed right after my son jumped from the plane. At that point, the pilot lost control and crashed.
We believe God and our son’s Guardian Angel intervened in saving our son and his friends. Interestingly enough, our other son was in a motorcycle accident one week prior to this event and walked away with only minor injuries. I asked both of my sons to please let their guardian angels have some rest! ~Donna J.